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HUGO GROTIUS (Huig de Groot), a modern természetjogi felfogás és a modern politikai irodalom egyik megteremtője, aki a természet-jogon alapuló nemzetközi jog alapjait fektette le. »»

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HONLAP SZERKESZTŐSÉG IMPRESSZUM BEKÖSZÖNTŐ LEVÉL NEKÜNK
 DOKUMENTUM
Az ENSZ Biztonsági Tanácsának 1199 (1998) sz. határozata a koszovói konfliktusról (1998. 09. 23.)
1998.09.23.

1998 februárjától egyre súlyosabbá vált a Koszovóban kialakult helyzet. Az UCK meghirdette Koszovó „felszabadítást”, majd ellenőrzése alá vonta a tartomány több mint egyharmadát és megkezdte a „szabad Koszovó” intézményeinek felállítását. A megerősített jugoszláv katonai és rendőri egységek azonban visszaszerezték a terülteket és szétszórták az UCK-fegyvereseket. A helyi albánok nagy része azonban továbbra is támogatta az UCK-gerilákat. A két fél kölcsönösen megnyerhetetlen háborúba keveredett egymással. A belgrádi kormány a civil lakosság megfélemlítésére tisztogatási akciókba kezdett.

Az ENSZ Biztonsági Tanácsa a koszovói konfliktus kapcsán hozott a Jugoszlávia elleni a fegyverembargót elrendelő 1160 (1998) sz. határozat után 1998. szeptember 23-án újabb határozatot hozott a koszovói válsággal kapcsolatosan. A BT az 1199 (1998) sz. határozatában követelte, hogy a Koszovóban szemben álló felek azonnal állapodjanak meg a tűzszünetben, tegyenek lépéseket a fenyegető humanitárius katasztrófa elkerülése érdekében és nemzetközi közreműködéssel haladéktalanul kezdjenek párbeszédet a koszovói politikai rendezés menetéről. A szavazás során az okmány elfogadását a tartózkodó Kínán kívül mind a 14 BT-tagállam támogatta.

A határozat hivatkozik az ENSZ Alapokmány VII. fejezetére, s így teljesítésének megtagadása lehetőséget ad a Biztonsági Tanácsnak a térség békéjének és stabilitásának fenntartása érdekében további akciók és intézkedések meghozatalára (egy külső fegyveres beavatkozás jóváhagyásához azonban nem elegendő ez a kitétel, ahhoz egy következő határozatot is kellett volna hozni, de erre orosz és kínai ellenállás mellett természetesen nem kerülhetett sor). Később sokan erre a határozatra hivatkoztak úgy, mint amely felhatalmazást ad a külső fegyveres beavatkozásra. A BT 1199 (1998) sz. határozatára azon mások szerint nem lehet egyértelműen úgy hivatkozni, mintha az legitimálta volna a NATO 1999. évi légi beavatkozását.

A határozat a tűzszünetre felszólító és a többi fentebb említett eleme mellett felszólítja a jugoszláv biztonsági erőket a polgári lakosság elleni akciók beszüntetésére, a koszovói albánok vezetőit pedig az erőszak és terrorizmus elítélésére és a volt Jugoszlávia területén elkövetett háborús bűncselekmények ügyében eljáró ENSZ-törvényszékkel való együttműködésre.

A nemzetközi közösségnek a BT-határozatban megfogalmazott követelései nem valósultak meg, s a humanitárius visszaélések sorában az „utolsó cseppet” jelentő račaki mészárlás után a NATO 1999. március 24-én légierejével beavatkozott koszovói konfliktusba.

A határozatot újra közreadja Grolmusz Viola Csilla.

A határozat angol nyelvű közlésének forrása:

http://www.un.org/peace/kosovo/98sc1199.htm

 

 

 

RESOLUTION 1199 (1998)

Adopted by the Security Council at its 3930th meeting on 23 September 1998


The Security Council,
Recallingits resolution 1160 (1998) of 31 March 1998,
Having considered the reports of the Secretary-General pursuant to that resolution, and in particular his report of 4 September 1998 (S/1998/834 and Add.1),
Noting with appreciation the statement of the Foreign Ministers of France, Germany, Italy, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America (the Contact Group) of 12 June 1998 at the conclusion of the Contact Group's meeting with the Foreign Ministers of Canada and Japan (S/1998/567, annex), and the further statement of the Contact Group made in Bonn on 8 July 1998 (S/1998/657),
Noting also with appreciation the joint statement by the Presidents of the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia of 16 June 1998 (S/1998/526),
Noting further the communication by the Prosecutor of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia to the Contact Group on 7 July 1998, expressing the view that the situation in Kosovo represents an armed conflict within the terms of the mandate of the Tribunal,
Gravely concerned at the recent intense fighting in Kosovo and in particular the excessive and indiscriminate use of force by Serbian security forces and the Yugoslav Army which have resulted in numerous civilian casualties and, according to the estimate of the Secretary-General, the displacement of over 230,000 persons from their homes,
Deeply concerned by the flow of refugees into northern Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and other European countries as a result of the use of force in Kosovo, as well as by the increasing numbers of displaced persons within Kosovo, and other parts of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, up to 50,000 of whom the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has estimated are without shelter and other basic necessities,
Reaffirmingthe right of all refugees and displaced persons to return to their homes in safety, and underlining the responsibility of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia for creating the conditions which allow them to do so,
Condemningall acts of violence by any party, as well as terrorism in pursuit of political goals by any group or individual, and all external support for such activities in Kosovo, including the supply of arms and training for terrorist activities in Kosovo and expressing concern at the reports of continuing violations of the prohibitions imposed by resolution 1160 (1998),
Deeply concerned by the rapid deterioration in the humanitarian situation throughout Kosovo, alarmed at the impending humanitarian catastrophe as described in the report of the Secretary-General, and emphasizing the need to prevent this from happening,
Deeply concerned also by reports of increasing violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law, and emphasizing the need to ensure that the rights of all inhabitants of Kosovo are respected,
Reaffirmingthe objectives of resolution 1160 (1998), in which the Council expressed support for a peaceful resolution of the Kosovo problem which would include an enhanced status for Kosovo, a substantially greater degree of autonomy, and meaningful self-administration,
Reaffirming also the commitment of all Member States to the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,
Affirmingthat the deterioration of the situation in Kosovo, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, constitutes a threat to peace and security in the region,
Actingunder Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,

1. Demands that all parties, groups and individuals immediately cease hostilities and maintain a ceasefire in Kosovo, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which would enhance the prospects for a meaningful dialogue between the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Albanian leadership and reduce the risks of a humanitarian catastrophe;
2. Demands also that the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Albanian leadership take immediate steps to improve the humanitarian situation and to avert the impending humanitarian catastrophe;
3. Calls upon the authorities in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Albanian leadership to enter immediately into a meaningful dialogue without preconditions and with international involvement, and to a clear timetable, leading to an end of the crisis and to a negotiated political solution to the issue of Kosovo, and welcomes the current efforts aimed at facilitating such a dialogue;
4. Demands further that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in addition to the measures called for under resolution 1160 (1998), implement immediately the following concrete measures towards achieving a political solution to the situation in Kosovo as contained in the Contact Group statement of 12 June 1998:
(a) cease all action by the security forces affecting the civilian population and order the withdrawal of security units used for civilian repression;
(b) enable effective and continuous international monitoring in Kosovo by the European Community Monitoring Mission and diplomatic missions accredited to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including access and complete freedom of movement of such monitors to, from and within Kosovo unimpeded by government authorities, and expeditious issuance of appropriate travel documents to international personnel contributing to the monitoring;
(c) facilitate, in agreement with the UNHCR and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the safe return of refugees and displaced persons to their homes and allow free and unimpeded access for humanitarian organizations and supplies to Kosovo;
(d) make rapid progress to a clear timetable, in the dialogue referred to in paragraph 3 with the Kosovo Albanian community called for in resolution 1160 (1998), with the aim of agreeing confidence-building measures and finding a political solution to the problems of Kosovo;
5. Notes, in this connection, the commitments of the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in his joint statement with the President of the Russian Federation of 16 June 1998:
(a) to resolve existing problems by political means on the basis of equality for all citizens and ethnic communities in Kosovo;
(b) not to carry out any repressive actions against the peaceful population;
(c) to provide full freedom of movement for and ensure that there will be no restrictions on representatives of foreign States and international institutions accredited to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia monitoring the situation in Kosovo;
(d) to ensure full and unimpeded access for humanitarian organizations, the ICRC and the UNHCR, and delivery of humanitarian supplies;
(e) to facilitate the unimpeded return of refugees and displaced persons under programmes agreed with the UNHCR and the ICRC, providing State aid for the reconstruction of destroyed homes,
and calls for the full implementation of these commitments;
6. Insists that the Kosovo Albanian leadership condemn all terrorist action, and emphasizes that all elements in the Kosovo Albanian community should pursue their goals by peaceful means only;
7. Recalls the obligations of all States to implement fully the prohibitions imposed by resolution 1160 (1998);
8. Endorses the steps taken to establish effective international monitoring of the situation in Kosovo, and in this connection welcomes the establishment of the Kosovo Diplomatic Observer Mission;
9. Urges States and international organizations represented in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to make available personnel to fulfil the responsibility of carrying out effective and continuous international monitoring in Kosovo until the objectives of this resolution and those of resolution 1160 (1998) are achieved;
10. Reminds the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that it has the primary responsibility for the security of all diplomatic personnel accredited to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as well as the safety and security of all international and non-governmental humanitarian personnel in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and calls upon the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and all others concerned in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to take all appropriate steps to ensure that monitoring personnel performing functions under this resolution are not subject to the threat or use of force or interference of any kind;
11. Requests States to pursue all means consistent with their domestic legislation and relevant international law to prevent funds collected on their territory being used to contravene resolution 1160 (1998);
12. Calls upon Member States and others concerned to provide adequate resources for humanitarian assistance in the region and to respond promptly and generously to the United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Humanitarian Assistance Related to the Kosovo Crisis;
13. Calls upon the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the leaders of the Kosovo Albanian community and all others concerned to cooperate fully with the Prosecutor of the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in the investigation of possible violations within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal;
14. Underlines also the need for the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to bring to justice those members of the security forces who have been involved in the mistreatment of civilians and the deliberate destruction of property;
15. Requests the Secretary-General to provide regular reports to the Council as necessary on his assessment of compliance with this resolution by the authorities of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and all elements in the Kosovo Albanian community, including through his regular reports on compliance with resolution 1160 (1998);

16. Decides, should the concrete measures demanded in this resolution and resolution 1160 (1998) not be taken, to consider further action and additional measures to maintain or restore peace and stability in the region;
17. Decides to remain seized of the matter.

GROTIUS KÖNYVTÁR


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