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HUGO GROTIUS (Huig de Groot), a modern természetjogi felfogás és a modern politikai irodalom egyik megteremtője, aki a természet-jogon alapuló nemzetközi jog alapjait fektette le. »»

Keresés:
HONLAP SZERKESZTŐSÉG IMPRESSZUM BEKÖSZÖNTŐ LEVÉL NEKÜNK
 DOKUMENTUM
Az 1979-es egyiptomi–izraeli békeszerződés
1979.03.26.

A két Camp David-i egyezmény (1978. szeptember 17.)  eredményeként jöhetett létre 1979-ben az egyiptomi–izraeli békemegállapodás, amelyet Washingtonban írtak alá a felek, 1979. március 26-án. A békeszerződés korszakhatár jelent az egyiptomi–izraeli kapcsolatok történetében.  A békeszerződés következményeként az Arab Liga – melynek államai a Camp David-i egyezmények aláírása után erős nyomást gyakoroltak Egyiptomra, hogy az ne tárgyaljon tovább Izraellel – 1979 és 1989 között felfüggesztette Egyiptom tagságát az arab államok szervezetében. A békekötést mint „különbékét” az arab világban fogadó felháborodás egy további utólagos következménye volt ezen kívül, hogy 1981-ben Szadat egyiptomi elnök merénylet áldozata lett. Halálával azonban az egyiptomi–izraeli kapcsolatok nem indultak romlásnak. Utódjának, a máig elnöklő Hoszni Mubarak rezsimjének az Egyesült Államok jelentős segélyezője azóta is, és az Egyesült Államok ily módon egyben az Izraellel kötött békemegállapodás mellett kitartó egyiptomi politika egyfajta „finanszírozója” is.

Az izraeli–egyiptomi megállapodások, illetve a békeszerződéshez utóbb, 1981-ben csatolt jegyzőkönyvvel létrejött békefenntartó misszió, az MFO (Multi-national Forces and Observers) által a Sínai-félszigeten teremtett helyzet (izraeli kivonulás; zónák szerint korlátozott egyiptomi katonai jelenlét; kis létszámú nemzetközi békefenntartó erő) napjainkban a palesztin Gázai övezet felé a félszigeten keresztülhaladó fegyvercsempész útvonalak miatt kap újra figyelmet. Izrael azzal vádolja Egyiptomot, hogy az nem tesz eleget a csempészet leállítása érdekében, Egyiptom pedig az 1979–1982-es megállapodásokra hivatkozik, melyek alapján erre mindenképpen csak korlátozottan lehet képes (ld. az alábbiakban az izraeli–egyiptomi békeszerződés I. számú mellékletének II.–III. cikkeit). Izrael megfontolásait bonyolítja, hogy az 1979-es, az egyiptomiakkal kötött békeszerződés felülírása, illetve a Sínai-félsziget egyiptomi remilitarizálásának esetleges elfogadása megfoszthatja az egyik legfontosabb katonastratégiai előnytől, amellyel egy hosszú távon nem feltétlenül barátságos Egyiptommal szemben számolhat: vagyis hogy a szomszédos arab állam jelenleg nem hajthat végre csapatösszevonásokat közös határukon.

Az alábbiakban közölt dokumentum forrása:
http://www.mideastweb.org/egyptisraeltreaty.htm (A MidEastWeb Groupnak – a közel-keleti békefolyamatban aktív szerepet játszó nem-kormányzati szereplők egyik esernyőszervezetének – a honlapja).

The 1979 peace treaty between Egypt and Israel

The Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the State of Israel;

PREAMBLE

Convinced of the urgent necessity of the establishment of a just, comprehensive and lasting peace in the Middle East in accordance with Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338;

Reaffirming their adherence to the "Framework for Peace in the Middle East Agreed at Camp David," dated September 17, 1978;

oting that the aforementioned Framework as appropriate is intended to constitute a basis for peace not only between Egypt and Israel but also between Israel and each of its other Arab neighbors which is prepared to negotiate peace with it on this basis;

Desiring to bring to an end the state of war between them and to establish a peace in which every state in the area can live in security;

Convinced that the conclusion of a Treaty of Peace between Egypt and Israel is an important step in the search for comprehensive peace in the area and for the attainment of settlement of the Arab- Israeli conflict in all its aspects;

Inviting the other Arab parties to this dispute to join the peace process with Israel guided by and based on the principles of the aforementioned Framework;

Desiring as well to develop friendly relations and cooperation between themselves in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the principles of international law governing international relations in times of peace;

Agree to the following provisions in the free exercise of their sovereignty, in order to implement the "Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty Between Egypt and Israel";

Article I

The state of war between the Parties will be terminated and peace will be established between them upon the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.

Israel will withdraw all its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai behind the international boundary between Egypt and mandated Palestine, as provided in the annexed protocol (Annex I ), and Egypt will resume the exercise of its full sovereignty over the Sinai.

Upon completion of the interim withdrawal provided for in Annex I, the parties will establish normal and friendly relations, in accordance with Article III (3).

Article II

The permanent boundary between Egypt and Israel is the recognized international boundary between Egypt and the former mandated territory of Palestine, as shown on the map at Annex II, without prejudice to the issue of the status of the Gaza Strip. The Parties recognize this boundary as inviolable. Each will respect the territorial integrity of the other, including their territorial waters and airspace.

Article III

The Parties will apply between them the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law governing relations among states in times of peace. In particular:

They recognize and will respect each other's sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence;

They recognize and will respect each other's right to live in peace within their secure and recognized boundaries;

They will refrain from the threat or use of force, directly or indirectly, against each other and will settle all disputes between them by peaceful means.

Each Party undertakes to ensure that acts or threats of belligerency, hostility, or violence do not originate from and are not committed from within its territory, or by any forces subject to its control or by any other forces stationed on its territory , against the population, citizens or property of the other Party. Each Party also undertakes to refrain from organizing, instigating, inciting, assisting or participating in acts or threats of belligerency, hostility, subversion or violence against the other Party, anywhere, and undertakes to ensure that perpetrators of such acts are brought to justice.

The Parties agree that the normal relationship established between them will include full recognition, diplomatic, economic and cultural relations, termination of economic boycotts and discriminatory barriers to the free movement of people and goods, and will guarantee the mutual enjoyment by citizens of the due process of law. The process by which they undertake to achieve such a relationship parallel to the implementation of other provisions of this Treaty is set out in the annexed protocol (Annex III).

Article IV

In order to provide maximum security for both Parties on the basis of reciprocity, agreed security arrangements will be established including limited force zones in Egyptian and Israeli territory, and United Nations forces and observers, described in detail as to nature and timing in Annex I, and other security arrangements the Parties may agree upon.

The Parties agree to the stationing of United Nations personnel in areas described in Annex I. The Parties agree not to request withdrawal of the United Nations personnel and that these personnel will not be removed unless such removal is approved by the Security Council of the United Nations, with the affirmative vote of the five Permanent Members, unless the Parties otherwise agree.

A Joint Commission will be established to facilitate the implementation of the Treaty, as provided for in Annex I.

The security arrangements provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article may at the request of either party be reviewed and amended by mutual agreement of the Parties.

Article V

Ships of Israel, and cargoes destined for or coming from Israel, shall enjoy the right of free passage through the Suez Canal and its approaches through the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of the Constantinople Convention of 1888, applying to all nations, Israeli nationals, vessels and cargoes, as well as persons, vessels and cargoes destined for or coming from Israel, shall be accorded non- discriminatory treatment in all matters connected with usage of the canal.

The Parties consider the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba to be international waterways open to all nations for unimpeded and non-suspendable freedom of navigation and overflight. The parties will respect each other's right to navigation and overflight for access to either country through the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba.

Article VI

This Treaty does not affect and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations of the Parties under the Charter of the United Nations.

The Parties undertake to fulfill in good faith their obligations under this Treaty, without regard to action or inaction of any other party and independently of any instrument external to this Treaty.

They further undertake to take all the necessary measures for the application in their relations of the provisions of the multilateral conventions to which they are parties, including the submission of appropriate notification to the Secretary General of the United Nations and other depositaries of such conventions.

The Parties undertake not to enter into any obligation in conflict with this Treaty.

Subject to Article 103 of the United Nations Charter in the event of a conflict between the obligation of the Parties under the present Treaty and any of their other obligations, the obligations under this Treaty will be binding and implemented.

Article VII

Disputes arising out of the application or interpretation of this Treaty shall be resolved by negotiations.

Any such disputes which cannot be settled by negotiations shall be resolved by conciliation or submitted to arbitration.

Article VIII

The Parties agree to establish a claims commission for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.

Article IX

This Treaty shall enter into force upon exchange of instruments of ratification.

This Treaty supersedes the Agreement between Egypt and Israel of September, 1975.

All protocols, annexes, and maps attached to this Treaty shall be regarded as an integral part hereof.

The Treaty shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the United Nations for registration in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Annex I

Protocol Concerning Israeli Withdrawal and Security Agreements

Article I

Concept of Withdrawal

Israel will complete withdrawal of all its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai not later than three years from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.

To ensure the mutual security of the Parties, the implementation of phased withdrawal will be accompanied by the military measures and establishment of zones set out in this Annex and in Map 1, hereinafter referred to as "the Zones."

The withdrawal from the Sinai will be accomplished in two phases:

The interim withdrawal behind the line from east of El-Arish to Ras Mohammed as delineated on Map 2 within nine months from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.

The final withdrawal from the Sinai behind the international boundary not later than three years from the date of exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty.

A Joint Commission will be formed immediately after the exchange of instruments of ratification of this Treaty in order to supervise and coordinate movements and schedules during the withdrawal, and to adjust plans and timetables as necessary within the limits established by paragraph 3, above. Details relating to the Joint Commission are set out in Article IV of the attached Appendix. The Joint Commission will be dissolved upon completion of final Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai.

Article II

Determination of Final Lines and Zones

In order to provide maximum security for both Parties after the final withdrawal, the lines and the Zones delineated on Map 1 are to be established and organized as follows:

Zone A

Zone A is bounded on the east by line A (red line) and on the west by the Suez Canal and the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, as shown on Map 1.

An Egyptian armed force of one mechanized infantry division and its military installations, and field fortifications, will be in this Zone.

The main elements of that Division will consist of:

  • Three mechanized infantry brigades.
  • One armed brigade.
  • Seven field artillery battalions including up to 126 artillery pieces.
  • Seven anti-aircraft artillery battalions including individual surface-to-air missiles and up to 126 anti-aircraft guns of 37 mm and above.
  • Up to 230 tanks.
  • Up to 480 armored personnel vehicles of all types.
  • Up to a total of twenty-two thousand personnel.

Zone B

Zone B is bounded by line B (green line) on the east and by line A (red line) on the west, as shown on Map 1.

Egyptian border units of four battalions equipped with light weapons and wheeled vehicles will provide security and supplement the civil police in maintaining order in Zone B. The main elements in the four Border Battalions will consist of up to a total of four thousand personnel.

Land based, short range, low power, coastal warning points of the border patrol units may be established on the coast of this Zone.

There will be in Zone B field fortifications and military installations for the four border battalions.

Zone C

Zone C is bounded by line B (green line) on the west and the International Boundary and the Gulf of Aqaba on the east, as shown on Map 1.

Only United Nations forces and Egyptian civil police will be stationed in Zone C.

The Egyptian civil police armed with light weapons will perform normal police functions within this Zone.

The United Nations Force will be deployed within Zone C and perform its functions as defined in Article VI of this annex.

The United Nations Force will be stationed mainly in camps located within the following stationing areas shown on Map 1, and will establish its precise locations after consultations with Egypt:

In that part of the area in the Sinai lying within about 20 Km. of the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent to the International Boundary.

In the Sharm el Sheikh area.

Zone D

Zone D is bounded by line D (blue line) on the east and the international boundary on the west, as shown on Map 1.

In this Zone there will be an Israeli limited force of four infantry battalions, their military installations, and field fortifications, and United Nations observers.

The Israeli forces in Zone D will not include tanks, artillery and anti-aircraft missiles except individual surface-to-air missiles.

The main elements of the four Israeli infantry battalions will consist of up to 180 armored personnel vehicles of all types and up to a total of four thousand personnel.

Access across the international boundary shall only be permitted through entry check points designated by each Party and under its control. Such access shall be in accordance with laws and regulations of each country.

Only those field fortifications, military installations, forces, and weapons specifically permitted by this Annex shall be in the Zones.

Article III

Aerial Military Regime

Flights of combat aircraft and reconnaissance flights of Egypt and Israel shall take place only over Zones A and D, respectively.

Only unarmed, non-combat aircraft of Egypt and Israel will be stationed in Zones A and D, respectively.

Only Egyptian unarmed transport aircraft will take off and land in Zone B and up to eight such aircraft may be maintained in Zone B. The Egyptian border unit.,., may be equipped with unarmed helicopters to perform their functions in Zone B.

The Egyptian civil police may be equipped with unarmed police helicopters to perform normal police functions in Zone C.

Only civilian airfields maybe built in the Zones.

Without prejudice to the provisions of this Treaty, only those military aerial activities specifically permitted by this Annex shall be allowed in the Zones and the airspace above their territorial waters. (…)

GROTIUS KÖNYVTÁR


Studies on Political Islam and Islamic Political Thought

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